The NorFor system is described in detail in the book "NorFor - The Nordic feed evaluation system" from EAAP, including biological equations, feed analyses procedures and animal requirements. The book is published in the EAAP Scientific series, no 130. The content of the book has been reviewed by two senior researchers specialized in feed evaluation and nutrition. Overall model description (Chapter 2 from the book)


Appuhamy, J. , J. France, and E. Kebreab. 2016. Models for predicting enteric methane emissions from dairy cows in North America, Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. Global Change Biology 22(9):3039-3056.

Bertilsson J., Eriksson T., Åkerlind M., 2015. What does the cow and NorFor say about sugar in the diet? NFSC 2015 pp. 95-100.

Bertilsson, J., M. Åkerlind, and T. Eriksson. 2017. The effects of high-sugar ryegrass/red clover silage diets on intake, production, digestibility, and N utilization in dairy cows, as measured in vivo and predicted by the NorFor model. Journal of Dairy Science 100(10):7990-8003.

Gustafsson, A. H., H. Volden, M. Mehlqvist, M. Larsen, G. Gudmundsson, and O. Aaes. 2006. NorForTM - the new Nordic feed evaluation system for cattle. Pages 122-126 in Proc. 35th ICAR Session and INTERBULL Meeting, Kuopio.

Hauge R., Johansen M., Nielsen N. I., 2015. Estimation and evaluation of rumen microbial protein synthesis in NorFor and other feed evaluation systems. NFSC 2015 pp. 116 -122

Jensen, C. 2014. Milk and growth responses to energy intake in dairy cattle in the perspective of the non-additive feed evaluation system NorFor. in Science and Technology. Vol. PhD. Aarhus University, Foulum.

Krizsan, S. J., A. Höjer, A. Huuskonen, M. Hetta, and P. Huhtanen. 2014. Evaluation of the feed intake models in the Nordic feed evaluation system NorFor. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A Animal Science 64(2):110-122.

Lapierre, H., M. Larsen, D. Sauvant, M. E. Van Amburgh, and G. Van Duinkerken. 2018. Review: Converting nutritional knowledge into feeding practices: a case study comparing different protein feeding systems for dairy cows. Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience:1-10.

Nielsen, N. I., H. Volden, M. Åkerlind, M. Brask, A. L. F. Hellwing, T. Storlien, and J. Bertilsson. 2013. A prediction equation for enteric methane emission from dairy cows for use in NorFor. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A Animal Science 63(3):126-130.

Nielsen & Kristensen. 2017. Ringtest shows that in vitro organic matter digestibility in silages varies 3-4%-units between laboratories doing NorFor analysis NFSC, pp 93-96

Schei I., Nielsen N. I., Åkerlind M., Volden, H., 2014. A meta-analysis of milk production responses to increased supply of AAT. NFSC pp. 78-82.

Åkerlind M., Johansson B., Stenberg H., Zaralis K., Schei I., Nielsen N.I., Nadeau E., 2015. Predicting intake capacity of growing bulls. NFSC 2015 pp.123-129.

Åkerlind M., Nielsen N. I. 2016 Are the nutrients and energy values for commercial compound feeds in the NorFor feedstuff table correct? ? a NIR screening conducted using different laboratories. NFSC pp. 11-16.

Åkerlind M., Nielsen N.I., Alvarez C., Nordgren P. 2017. The NorFor feed database. NFSC pp 102-108

Nutrient and energy values for compound feeds in the NorFor FST are generally correct See results here

Article from Nordic Feed Science Conference 2013
Using NorFor to balance diets for amino acids in lactating dairy cows
In: Proceedings of the 4th Nordic Feed Science Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, p 93
Broderick, G., Åkerlind, M. and Nielsen, N.I. 2013

Article from Nordic Feed Science Conference 2012
A comparison of dietary protein evaluations by the NRC-2001 and Nordic Feed Evaluation Systems
In: Proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Feed Science Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, p 128
Broderick, G. and Åkerlind, M. 2012

Article from D&U Conference 2012
Efficient protein feeding how to use modern feed evaluation systems
In: Proceedings from D&U Conference 2012, Uppsala, Sweden, p 19
Broderick, G.A. and Åkerlind, M. 2012

Article from Nordic Feed Science Conference 2010
The potential of using the NorFor model to evaluate dietary strategies to reduce methane production and nitrogen excretion in cattle
In: Proceedings of the 1st Nordic Feed Science Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, p 65
Volden, H. 2010

NorFor young stock
The overall purpose of this work was to develop a new Nordic feed evaluation tool for young stock, i.e. heifers, bulls and steers with main focus on dairy breeds but also including beef breeds.
NorFor report young stock January 2007 (partly in English)